Sunday, April 25, 2010

Common Lab Values

                                                                        بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Hematology Values


Normal  Adult Female Range:    37 - 47%
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 42%
Normal  Adult Male Range          40 - 54%
Optimal Adult Male Reading:      47%
Normal  Newborn Range:            50 - 62%
Optimal Newborn Reading:         56%


Normal Adult Female Range:     12 - 16 g/dl
Optimal Adult Female Reading: 14 g/dl
Normal  Adult Male Range:         14 - 18 g/dl
Optimal Adult Male Reading:      16 g/dl
Normal  Newborn Range:             14 - 20 g/dl
Optimal Newborn Reading           17 g/dl

MCH (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin)

Normal  Adult Range:       27 - 33 pg
Optimal Adult Reading:    30
MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume)

Normal Adult Range:         80 - 100 fl
Optimal Adult Reading:     90
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants

MCHC (Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration)

Normal Adult Range:       32 - 36 %
Optimal Adult Reading:   34
Higher ranges are found in newborns and infants

R.B.C. (Red Blood Cell Count)

Normal Adult Female Range:       3.9 - 5.2 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Female Reading:   4.55
Normal Adult Male Range:           4.2 - 5.6 mill/mcl
Optimal Adult Male Reading:       4.9
Lower ranges are found in Children, newborns and infants

W.B.C. (White Blood Cell Count)

Normal Adult Range:     3.8 - 10.8 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 7.3
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants.


Normal  Adult Range:     130 - 400 thous/mcl
Optimal Adult Reading: 265
Higher ranges are found in children, newborns and infants


- This is the main defender of the body against infection and antigens. High levels may indicate an active infection.

Normal  Adult Range:              48 - 73 %
Optimal Adult Reading:           60.5
Normal Children’s Range:       30 - 60 %
Optimal Children’s Reading:   45


- Elevated levels may indicate active viral infections such as measles, rubella, chickenpox, or infectious mononucleosis.

Normal Adult Range:         18 - 48 %
Optimal Adult Reading:     33
Normal Children’s Range: 25 - 50 %
Optimal Children’s Reading: 37.5


- Elevated levels are seen in tissue breakdown or chronic infections, carcinomas, leukemia (monocytic) or lymphomas.

Normal Adult Range:     0 - 9 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5

 Elevated levels may indicate an allergic reactions or parasites.

Normal Adult Range:      0 - 5 %
Optimal Adult Reading:  2.5


Basophilic activity is not   fully understood but it is known to carry histamine, heparin and serotonin. High levels are found in allergic reactions.
Normal  Adult Range: 0 - 2 %
Optimal Adult Reading: 1

Electrolyte Values

- Sodium is the most abundant Cation in the blood and its chief base. It functions in the body to maintain osmotic pressure, acid-base balance and to transmit nerve impulses. Very Low value: seizure and Neurologic Sx.

Normal Adult Range: 135-146 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 140.5

- Potassium is the major intracellular Cation. Very low value: Cardiac arrhythmia.

Normal Range: 3.5 - 5.5 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 4.5
- Elevated levels are related to acidosis as wells too much water crossing the cell membrane

Decreased levels with decreased serum albumin may indicate water deficiency crossing the cell membrane (edema). - Diabetes

Normal Adult Range: 95-112 mEq/L

Optimal Adult Reading: 103 mEq/L

Chloride contributes to the body’s acid/base balance. Along with Sodium, Potassium and Carbon Dioxide, it is important in evaluating acid/base relationships, state of hydration, adrenal and renal functions. Its level varies inversely with Carbon Dioxide. Chloride elevation indicates acidosis, decrease indicate alkalosis.

CO2 (Carbon Dioxide)
- The CO2 level is related tothe respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide in the lungs and is part of the bodies buffering system. Generally when used with the other electrolytes, it is a good indicator of acidosis and alkalinity.

Normal Adult Range:     22-32 mEq/L
Optimal Adult Reading: 27
Normal Children's Range - 20 - 28 mEq/L
Optimal Children's Reading: 24

- involved in bone metabolism, protein absorption, fat transfer muscular contraction, transmission of nerve impulses, blood clotting and cardiac function. Regulated by parathyroid.
Normal Adult Range: 8.5-10.3 mEq/dl

Optimal Adult Reading: 9.4


Serum calcium is not at all reflective of total body stores of calcium but rather reflects the metabolic and hormonal state of the individual. Ionic or free calcium is not only the biologically active form of calcium but reflects the amount of albumin and the blood pH.

Serum calcium can not be properly interpreted without serum albumin level. Use the formula Adjusted Calcium = Serum calcium - serum albumin + 4. By far the most common causes of hypocalcaemia are primary hyperparathyroidism, malignancy, and drug-induced. A PTH, calcium, albumin and phosphorus level drawn simultaneously helps classify the etiology into main groups. Watch for signs of calcium deposition and kidney stones
Optimal Range: 2-3 mg/DL


The serum magnesium is not reflective of total magnesium stores. Unfortunately there is not a good test for magnesium, but a red cell Mg level is preferable to serum magnesium. Approximately 2/3 to ¾ of magnesium in blood is not attached to protein.

- Generally inverse with Calcium.

Normal Adult Range: 2.5 - 4.5 mEq/dl
Optimal Adult Reading: 3.5
Normal Children's Range: 3 - 6 mEq/dl
Optimal Children's Range: 4.5

(Sodium + Potassium - CO2 + Chloride) - An increased measurement is associated with metabolic acidosis due to the overproduction of acids (a state of alkalinity is in effect). Decreased levels may indicate metabolic alkalosis due to the overproduction of alkaloids (a state of acidosis is in effect).

Normal Adult Range: 4 - 14 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 9


Normal Adult Range: 2.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 2.8
Normal Children’s range: 1.3 - 3.3 (calculated)
Optimal Children’s Reading: 2.3


Normal Adult Range: 26 - 38 (calculated)
Optimal Adult Reading: 32 

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