● Toxic substances or their metabolites, which inhibit key steps in intermediary metabolism, are likely to cause metabolic acidosis owing to the accumulation of organic acids, notably lactate.
Type of Drugs
Valporic acid (Depakine)
> 100 - 150 µg/ml
4.0 – 12.0 µg/ml
> 12 µg/ml
0.9 - 2 µg/ml
> 2 µg/ml
10 – 20 µg/ml
> 20 µg/ml
Basic techniques for detecting drugs in serum and urine
1- visible and ultraviolet spectrophotometry
The major problem encountered with this technique is interference
2- Thin-layer chromatography (TLC):
qualitative & confirmatory test
3- Enzyme Immunoassays (EMIT):
his assay can detect drug levels in the nanomolar range and is both higly sensitive and specfic.
4- High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): Preparative
HPLC & analytical HPLC. Not limited by the volatility or stability of the sample compound
5- Gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC/MS): Gold
standard technique to confirm the results obtained using EMIT and
TLC because of its great sensitivity and its reliability. This technique
is used in the forensic analysis.
Drug levels in the blood with traditional drug dosing