Certain medicines may prevent calcium stones.
Uric acid stones
About 5% to 10% of kidney stones are made of uric acid, a waste product normally passed out of the body in the urine.1 You are more likely to have uric acid stones if you have:
Low urine output.
A diet high in animal protein, such as red meat.
An increase in how much alcohol you drink.
Inflammatory bowel disease.
Certain medicines may prevent or dissolve uric acid stones.
About 10% to 15% of kidney stones are struvite stones.1 They can also be called infection stones if they occur with kidney or urinary tract infections (UTIs). These types of kidney stones sometimes are also called staghorn calculi if they grow large enough.
Struvite stones can be serious because they are often large stones and may occur with an infection. Medical treatment, including antibiotics and removal of the stone, is usually needed for struvite stones. Women are affected more than men because of their higher risk of urinary tract infections.
Less than 1% of kidney stones are made of a chemical called cystine.1 Cystine stones are more likely to develop in families with a condition that results in too much cystine in the urine (cystinuria).
Cystine stones may be prevented or dissolved with medicine, but this may be difficult and not very effective. If the stones cause blockage in the urinary tract or are too large, then removal of the stone will be needed.